Nephrology’s focus is on diagnosing and managing diseases that affect the way how kidney function. Nephrologists are medical doctors who specialize in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the kidney and urinary system, such as inflammation of the kidneys, chronic kidney disease, hypertension or effects of high blood pressure and diabetes on the kidneys, side effects of medications on the kidneys and also complications of many other diseases on the way the kidneys function to filter the blood and keep it clean. Nephrologists control electrolyte disorders such as low or high sodium, potassium, calcium. Nephrologists recommend non-surgical medical treatments for eliminating these disorders and who develop kidney stones, diagnose & prescribe medications to prevent them to come back again. Nephrologists also follow up patients with end-stage kidney disease who already are on dialysis and prepare them to become an applicant for a kidney transplant, they also follow up patients already transplanted after the surgery.


There are a variety of services that a nephrologist can offer, such as:


Monitoring blood pressure

Kidney disease management-Prevention and treatment such as acute renal failure, Chronic kidney disease (CKD), End-stage renal disease (ESRD), Anemia of kidney disease, Glomerulonephritis, Polycystic kidney disease, Hypertension, Metabolic syndrome, Pregnancy and renal disease, Acid-base disorders, Electrolyte disorders, Hematuria, Proteinuria, Kidney stones, Kidney transplant

Dialysis treatments: Dialysis is used to treat patients with end-stage kidney failure defined as a loss of 85 to 90 percent of kidney function and a glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of less than 15. Treatment can range from in-house dialysis at the provider’s office to home or even in the emergency room. A nephrologist will monitor dialysis and evaluate whether a kidney transplant is required if other treatments are ineffective.



Urologists are medical doctors who specialize in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the kidneys and urinary system in men and women and disorders of the male reproductive system. Urologists perform surgery and treat urination problems, such as difficulty in holding urine (incontinence), tumors, cysts, growths or stones of the urinary system, they also treat problems of the male reproductive system.


Urologists focus on treating anatomical or structural problems of the urinary tract and its related organs. Areas that can be treated by urologists include:


  • Urethra
  • Bladder
  • Ureters
  • Kidneys
  • Adrenal glands
  • Testes
  • Prostate
  • Seminal vesicles
  • Vas deferens
  • Epididymis
  • Urology is a surgical specialty while nephrology is not. 


Some of the common diseases which are treated by urologist include:

  • Urinary bladder problems
  • Urinary tract infection
  • Ureter conditions
  • Anatomical kidney defects
  • Kidney stones
  • Conditions of the male reproductive organs
  • Adrenal problems


To summarize, nephrologists specifically treat diseases that affect the kidneys and their ability to function, such as diabetes or kidney failure. Urologists treat conditions of the urinary tract, including those that can be affected by the kidneys such as kidney stones and obstruction.