Urologists are medical doctors who specialize in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the kidneys and urinary system in men and women and disorders of the male reproductive system. Urologists perform surgery and treat urination problems, such as difficulty in holding urine (incontinence), tumors, cysts, growths or stones of the urinary system, they also treat problems of the male reproductive system.


Urologists focus on treating anatomical or structural problems of the urinary tract and its related organs. Areas that can be treated by urologists include:


  • Urethra
  • Bladder
  • Ureters
  • Kidneys
  • Adrenal glands
  • Testes
  • Prostate
  • Seminal vesicles
  • Vas deferens
  • Epididymis

Urology is a surgical specialty while nephrology is not. Some of the common diseases which are treated by urologist include:


  • Urinary bladder problems
  • Urinary tract infection
  • Ureter conditions
  • Anatomical kidney defects
  • Kidney stones
  • Conditions of the male reproductive organs
  • Adrenal problems


To summarize, nephrologists specifically treat diseases that affect the kidneys and their ability to function, such as diabetes or kidney failure. Urologists treat conditions of the urinary tract, including those that can be affected by the kidneys such as kidney stones and obstruction.